Tuesday, April 19, 2016

University Employment Partnerships


Wednesday, April 13, 2016


Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) Title I consists of nine sections and establishes the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, to provide independent oversight of public accounting firms providing audit services ("auditors"). It also creates a central oversight board tasked with registering auditors, defining the specific processes and procedures for compliance audits, inspecting and policing conduct and quality control, and enforcing compliance with the specific mandates of SOX. Auditor Independence Title II consists of nine sections and establishes standards for external auditor independence, to limit conflicts of interest. It also addresses new auditor approval requirements, audit partner rotation, and auditor reporting requirements. It restricts auditing companies from providing non-audit services (e.g., consulting) for the same clients. Corporate Responsibility Title III consists of eight sections and mandates that senior executives take individual responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of corporate financial reports. It defines the interaction of external auditors and corporate audit committees, and specifies the responsibility of corporate officers for the accuracy and validity of corporate financial reports. It enumerates specific limits on the behaviors of corporate officers and describes specific forfeitures of benefits and civil penalties for non-compliance. For example, Section 302 requires that the company's "principal officers" (typically the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer) certify and approve the integrity of their company financial reports quarterly. Enhanced Financial Disclosures Title IV consists of nine sections. It describes enhanced reporting requirements for financial transactions, including off-balance-sheet transactions, pro-forma figures and stock transactions of corporate officers. It requires internal controls for assuring the accuracy of financial reports and disclosures, and mandates both audits and reports on those controls. It also requires timely reporting of material changes in financial condition and specific enhanced reviews by the SEC or its agents of corporate reports. Analyst Conflicts of Interest Title V consists of only one section, which includes measures designed to help restore investor confidence in the reporting of securities analysts. It defines the codes of conduct for securities analysts and requires disclosure of knowable conflicts of interest. Commission Resources and Authority Title VI consists of four sections and defines practices to restore investor confidence in securities analysts. It also defines the SEC's authority to censure or bar securities professionals from practice and defines conditions under which a person can be barred from practicing as a broker, advisor, or dealer. Studies and Reports Title VII consists of five sections and requires the Comptroller General and the SEC to perform various studies and report their findings. Studies and reports include the effects of consolidation of public accounting firms, the role of credit rating agencies in the operation of securities markets, securities violations, and enforcement actions, and whether investment banks assisted Enron, Global Crossing, and others to manipulate earnings and obfuscate true financial conditions. Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability Title VIII consists of seven sections and is also referred to as the "Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability Act of 2002". It describes specific criminal penalties for manipulation, destruction or alteration of financial records or other interference with investigations, while providing certain protections for whistleblowers. White Collar Crime Penalty Enhancement Title IX consists of six sections. This section is also called the "White Collar Crime Penalty Enhancement Act of 2002." This section increases the criminal penalties associated with white-collar crimes and conspiracies. It recommends stronger sentencing guidelines and specifically adds failure to certify corporate financial reports as a criminal offense. Corporate Tax Returns Title X consists of one section. Section 1001 states that the Chief Executive Officer should sign the company tax return. Corporate Fraud Accountability Title XI consists of seven sections. Section 1101 recommends a name for this title as "Corporate Fraud Accountability Act of 2002". It identifies corporate fraud and records tampering as criminal offenses and joins those offenses to specific penalties. It also revises sentencing guidelines and strengthens their penalties. This enables the SEC to resort to temporarily freezing transactions or payments that have been deemed "large" or "unusual". Sarbanes–Oxley Section 802: Criminal penalties for influencing US Agency investigation/proper administration Section 802(a) of the SOX, 18 U.S.C. § 1519

Saturday, April 2, 2016


Transforming American Education: DRAFT. National Educational Technology Plan 2010. March 5, 2010. Office Learning Powered by Technology Building on the report of a technical working group of leading researchers and practitioners and on input received from many respected education leaders and the public, this National Education Technology Plan tackles this and other important questions. The plan presents goals, recommendations, and actions for a model of 21st century learning informed by the learning sciences and powered by technology. Advances in the learning sciences give us valuable insights into how people learn. Technology innovations give us the ability to act on these insights as never before. Our plan is based on the following assumptions: • Much of the failure of our education system stems from a failure to engage students. • What students need to learn and what we know about how they learn have changed and therefore the learning experiences we provide should change. • How we assess learning focuses too much on what has been learned after the fact and not enough on improving learning in the moment. • We miss a huge opportunity to improve our entire education system when we gather student-learning data in silos and fail to integrate it and make it broadly available to decision-makers at all levels of our education system – individual educators, schools, districts, states, and the federal government. • Learning depends on effective teaching, and we need to expand our view of teaching to include extended teams of educators with different roles who collaborate across time and distance and use technology resources and tools that can augment human talent. • Making engaging learning experiences and resources available to all learners anytime and anywhere will require state-of-the-art technology and specialized people, processes, and tools. • Education can learn much from industry about leveraging technology to continuously improve learning outcomes while increasing the productivity of our education system at all levels. • Just as in health, energy, and defense, the federal government has an important role to play in funding and coordinating some of the more far-reaching research and development challenges associated with leveraging technology in education. Just as technology is at the core of virtually every aspect of our daily lives and work, it is central to implementing the model of 21st century learning in this plan. The model depends on technology to provide engaging and powerful learning content, resources, and experiences and assessment systems that measure student achievement in more complete, authentic and meaningful ways. Technology-based learning and assessment systems will be pivotal in improving student learning and generating data that can be used to continuously improve the education system at all levels. The model depends on technology